Robot Operations using AT89C51

The Robot is a Mechatronics System which mainly consists a Microcontroller/Microprocessor, Robot Chassis/Body, Wheels, Arms, Battery, Actuators and different types of motors such as DC Motors, Servo Motors, Stepper Motors, BLDC Motors etc. These motors do have different scopes as per the robotic application requirement. So, if we will talk about the vehicle robot then normally Geared DC motors are widely used. If your application requirement is High Torque then you must go with low speed DC motors & vice-versa. If you have already seen the article of DC Motor Interfacing with 8051 then you will not feel any difficulty in interfacing at all.

Let’s discuss about the Vehicle Robot which has two motors at right & left in the back side and one Caster Wheel at the center in the front side. We will control the movement of the Vehicle Robot by controlling the back motors.

Vehicle Robot can run in 6 directions namely:

  1. Forward Direction
  2. Backward Direction
  3. Forward Soft Right
  4. Forward Soft Left
  5. Forward Fast Right
  6. Forward Fast Left
Sr. No.EN1, EN2P2.3P2.2P2.1P2.0Robot Direction
Left MotorRight Motor
111001Forward
210110Backward
311000Forward Soft Right
410001Forward Soft Left
511010Forward Fast Right
610101Forward Fast Left
710000Stop
80XXXXStop

As per in the diagram the motor driver L293D is used to drive the Geared DC Motors. To control the Vehicle Robot In all above six directions, you should follow the below table.

Connect Red wires of DC motors M1 & M2 to OUT1 & OUT3 pins of L293D motor driver IC respectively and connect Black wires of DC motors M1 & M2 to OUT2 & OUT4 pins of L293D motor driver IC respectively.

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